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An Executive Recruiter told me once, “By and large the hiring process is a de-selection out process more than a selection in process; for every one hired, dozens perhaps hundreds or more are selected out. The key to being hired is, avoid being de-selected.”


Tom Morris’ presentation “How to Avoid Being De-selected in the Hiring Process,” walks participants through the 10 most common mistakes people make in the job search process.


– “Overall an excellent presentation with excellent information. Best speaker of the week.”

– “He made learning these valuable lessons lots of fun!!! What a great speaker.”

– “Tom Morris is an enthusiastic and very informative speaker.”

– “I think this is the third time I’ve heard Morris speak. I’ve learned something every time.”

– “Extremely vivacious and informative. Good examples, one of the best this week.”


Contact us to learn more about having Tom present “How to Avoid Being De-selected in the Hiring Process,” to your organization, today.

Much like writing a resume, the key to writing a good cover letter is to understand how people read them, and by and large, they don’t.

People glance at cover letters quickly, first for format and general appearance; this takes from less than a second to a very few seconds. Then they “quick scan” for keywords and qualifications emphasized in the position description and advertisement. Actually a computer may perform the quick scan for keywords before any human even looks at your resume; this is especially true if you are applying online. Because most position advertisements get dozens if not hundreds – and sometimes thousands – of responses, computer scans have become an essential and sometimes preferred way to pre-scan applicants’ resumes.

Therefore, crafting a superior cover letter begins by carefully reading and analyzing keywords and phrases used in the advertisement that describe what the employer wants.


1. Most people don’t carefully read and analyze the whole ad; they glance through the ad and highlight a few phrases and qualifications that catch their eye – perhaps because those are key skills or attributes that they want to be using in the new position.

2. Many read the ad from their point of view and not from the point of view of either the person who will read their application or the point of view of what the organization has spent the time and money to define, in writing: the person they want to hire.


1. Go old-school! Print out the position description.

2. Read everything in the ad: the description of the firm or organization, the general description of the position they’re seeking to fill, the requirements, the qualifications needed and preferred, and how and where they want you to respond to the ad.

3. Grab a highlighter and highlight everything in all those sections listed above that describes the corporate culture and what they’re looking for in the position. Watch especially for words and phrases that are repeated (e.g. they might describe their organization as one that emphasizes “teamwork” and “collaboration,” and “building and working in teams” might be listed as requirements or qualifications). The real tone of what they’re looking for is usually in the company description of itself (“dynamic,” “cutting edge”); if that’s how the company sees itself, you need to infuse that same tone and those values in your cover letter. Think: what is the essence of what they want? And what are the keywords or qualifications that they’ve used to describe the essence?

4. Sit back and analyze what you’ve highlighted. In addition to identifying the essence of what they’re looking for, based on your knowledge of this kind of position, what are the key skills, qualities and personal attributes desired that are also unique to this particular organization? Remember: ads for the same position title are not the same – the emphasis will be different and unique for each company.

5. Craft the opening sentence of your cover letter around the essence of what they want. Incorporate the top skills and qualifications listed in the position advertisement that you have highlighted. Use the same words they used in the ad; those are the exact keywords the reader or computer scanner will be likely looking for. Are there themes restated and reinforced? Use these themes as major headings for copy, then group the bullet points in your letter under them. Match your background and experience to the qualifications and specific requirements of the ideal candidate described. The goal is to have the reader almost instantly get the essence of what you are communicating without having to read the letter carefully.

This is what often makes the difference in those that go in the “yes” pile from those that wind up elsewhere.

The key to writing a good resume is to understand how people read them, and by and large, they don’t. People glance at resumes quickly for format and general appearance; this takes from less than a second to a very few seconds. Then they start a “quick scan” for keywords and keyword history info (where you worked, what your title was, how long you worked there, and what level of education you have).

If the resume passes that “quick scan” (studies have shown it takes about 10 seconds or less) then they consider putting it in the “yes” pile (if it’s in a pile of resumes they’re evaluating) or giving it what we call “the long read” where they actually read much and perhaps all of the copy in the document.

An exception is if you or your resume has been referred to them by a trusted third source (e.g. your “distant relative” and your “colleague in Shanghai”) in which case 1) it’s usually not in a pile of resumes they are sorting through, and 2) they already have a favorable initial opinion of you from the “recommendation” of the trusted person they know who has referred you.

When people recommend you and your resume to others, those others will likely read your resume no matter how you format and write it. But after that, if/when you start applying for positions that many others are applying for – and your resume becomes just one more in a long list or big pile of them – the “quick scan” tends to become operative.

That said, it’s essential to format your resume so as many keywords and concepts as practical appear right away up top. Once you have your keywords and concepts, be sure to read them carefully and make sure they offer the best of what you do and want to do. They should also represent similar keywords and concepts most likely to be the focus of ads you might respond to.

In addition to keywords, use numbers that stand out by quantifying scope and results. Remember: numbers with a dollar sign ($) or a percent sign (%) stand out and attract the reader’s eye. For example:

  • Managed 18 staff and $2.5 million budget.
  • Led 7-person team that implemented new marketing strategies.
  • Saved $25,000 by consolidating 10% of standard operating procedures.
  • Designed and installed IT system for 450 people in 12 locations.

As always, proofread your resume and ask others to proofread it for you, watching especially for typos and inconsistency.


Read and analyze six or so ads of interest for positions you would apply for to see what keywords or phrases they feature. If those words or phrases apply to you, consider adding them to your resume.

Writing a good resume begins with understanding how people read them. By and large, they don’t. People scan resumes, sometimes for a few seconds, often less. What do they look for in this “quick scan”?

The overall layout and format tend to direct the eye to information most prominently featured and highlighted. Most readers scan for key words and phrases — or the lack of them — which is why almost every book and article written about resumes for the last 30 years recommends a key word summary or profile.

Readers also look for reasons to eliminate resumes and the candidates they represent. The hiring process, after all, is more “selection-out” than it is “selection-in”: for every resume selected in, dozens, maybe hundreds, are selected out.

So what can you do?

  • Format, write and edit your resume so both the “quick scan” and the” long read” appeal to the reader.
  • Meet or talk with people first, follow up with your resume second; if people form a favorable judgment about you then get your resume, they are more likely to read it to get more information about you.

Analogy: A Recession As a Bungee-Jump

Think of a recession as if we bungee-jumped from a bridge. Coming to the “end” of a recession is like reaching the bottom of the bungee jump; we’re not going down anymore (at least the stock market isn’t), but we’re still a long way from the bridge, especially in terms of employment.

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